A house foundation can be a complex system of beams, posts, walls, and other structures that support your entire home above the ground. In most cases, you won’t even know a house foundation exists. However, if your home is on solid ground and has a strong structure, the house foundation is doing its job.
There are several different types of house foundations. Each type of foundation has its own unique characteristics that make it best suited for certain types of homes. To find out which type of foundation is best for your home, you need to know the basics of each.
This article explains the different types of house foundations and their main features.
What is a Foundation?
A foundation is a structure below the ground level of a home. It is the base upon which the rest of the house is built. There are three main types of house foundations: piers and footers, slab-on-grade, and in-ground.
Piers and Footers
Piers and footers are the foundation’s vertical and horizontal supports. Typically, they are made of concrete or steel and are embedded into the ground. The piers or footings support the rest of the house, and the ground acts as a buffer to dissipate any forces from the building above. There are different types of piers and footers that can support a variety of foundation types. The most common types are solid, post-tensioned, wood, and post-and-ring.
Solid piers are typically found in rural or undeveloped areas where they can support a single-family home. They are made of a single piece of concrete and may have reinforcing embedded within them to provide extra strength.
Post-tensioned piers are the most common type of piers and footers. They are made of multiple pieces of steel twisted together and are a form of cable-stayed construction. The extra length of the wires provides resistance against the tension of the ground, and the wires are usually encased within the concrete of the pier.
Wood piers are found in areas with access to a suitable supply of old-growth trees. The most common types are the wide-beam and the narrow-beam. Both types of wood piers are typically hollowed out and support single-family homes.
A slab-on-grade foundation is typically found in urban or suburban areas. It is made up of separate concrete slabs that are connected together with steel reinforcement or rods.
A typical slab-on-grade foundation has a retaining wall that holds back the soil from the slab. This soil provides added stability to the slab and can help prevent hazardous seepage and erosion. At the same time, the soil barrier also limits the aesthetic appeal of the slab.
Slab on concrete foundation
A slab on concrete foundation is similar to a slab on grade foundation, but the slab is made of concrete, reinforced with rebar, and sits on a concrete pad or a concrete slab. The main advantage of this type of foundation is that it can be less expensive than a traditional concrete pad or slab.
It is commonly used in areas where the soil is too rocky, wet, or of poor quality for a slab foundation.
How an In-ground Foundation Works
An in-ground house foundation works by using an isolated soil layer as the foundation. The foundation is usually concrete, and the soil layer is usually filled with gravel or stone.
As the house above rises, the weight presses down on the layers below, creating a stable surface for the entire home. This foundation type is ideal for lots of snow or heavy rains, or when soil conditions are not ideal.
Concrete Block foundations
A concrete block foundation is similar to a concrete masonry foundation (CMF). The main difference is the type of material used for the foundation. Concrete block foundations are usually made from concrete blocks, which are cut and formed into blocks.
Typically, a concrete block foundation is cheaper and easier to install than a CMF foundation. However, they may require more maintenance and tend to be less stable.
Block and stone foundations
A block foundation is made of a layer of stone or a combination of stone and concrete. A layer of gravel, sand, or similar impermeable material may be placed on top of the block foundation for added stability.
Typically, a block foundation is less expensive than a stone foundation, but it may require more work to prepare the ground and may be less attractive.
There are many types of house foundations. Each foundation type has its pros and cons, and the best choice depends on your unique situation. You can contact a foundation company in Huntsville, Alabama to get more information and guidance.
If you have the budget and space, a piers and footers foundation is typically the strongest and can support the largest amount of weight. However, they take up the most space and cost the most to install.
If you have limited space and budget, a concrete block foundation is typically the least expensive option and requires the least amount of work to install. However, it is not as strong as other foundation types and may require cosmetic repair work overtime.
If you have the space but not the budget, a stone foundation is an option. While the initial outlay for materials is higher, the foundation is maintenance-free. At the same time, it is the most expensive option and requires the most work to install.
If you have the budget but not the space, piers, and footers foundation may be a good option. They are typically the strongest foundation type and can support the largest amount of weight. However, they take up the most space and cost the most to install.
Depending on your unique situation, one type of foundation may be the best fit for your home. Be sure to do your research and choose the foundation type that best suits your needs and your budget.